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Ayodhya Verdict and History

By: Dr.Dipak Basu
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(The author is a Professor in International Economics in Nagasaki University, Japan)

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The verdict of the Lucknow Bench of the Allahabad High Court agreed on three important issues: Muslims do not have exclusive claim to the site held sacred by Hindus; the ground where the central dome of the Babri Masjid stood belongs to Ram Lalla as has been argued for centuries by Hindus who believe it is Ram Janmabhoomi; and, a temple existed at the spot that was selected by Mir Baqi to build a mosque to celebrate Babur"s victorious military campaign in the region. On the third point, two of the three judges also agreed that the temple was desecrated and destroyed to build the mosque; one of them held this to be un-Islamic, a point validated by Islamic theology.

Do the Muslims go to the court to establish their faiths regarding Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem (where the Prophet went by flying to establish the Dome of the Rock)? Do the Christians ever go to the court to establish their faith regarding Nazareth, or Bethlehem or Jerusalem? The Court has nothing to do with the faith. It is a great insult for the Hindus that the court is deciding whether their faith is valid or invalid. Swami Vivekanand said, "When a man has begun to be ashamed of his ancestors and his past, the end has come". According to the Pseudo-Secularists of India, 62 academics and journalists who have signed a petition against the Allahabad High Court verdict, Ramayana, Mahabharat, Purans are nothing but mythology and the rights of the Mongol invaders are sacrosanct.

Historical Evidences:

There are enough archeological evidence to demonstrate that the Mosque in Ayudhya was erected by destroying a temple, which was there, and the materials from the temple was used to build that Mosque by Baber, the Mongol invader to India. Some excerpts from the book "Rama: His Historicity, Mandir and Setu, Evidence of Literature, Archaeology and other Sciences" written by Dr BB Lal, Former Director General of the Archeological Survey of India would prove beyond doubt that there was a temple in the Janmabhoomi (birth place of Ram) area at Ayodhya preceding the construction of the Babri Masjid.

"Attached to the piers of the Babri Masjid there were twelve stone pillars which carried not only typical Hindu motifs and moldings but also figures of Hindu deities (Figs. 2.3).
It was self evident that these pillars were not an integral part of the Masjid but were foreign to it. Since, as already stated, the pillar-bases were penetrating into the Masjid complex, a question naturally arose whether these bases had anything to do with the above-mentioned pillars affixed to the piers of the Masjid. (pp-55)."

"Of the above mentioned three inscriptions, the largest one is engraved on a stone-slab measuring 1.10 x .56 meters, and consists of twenty lines. The relevant part of it reads as follows: a beautiful temple of Vishnu-Hari, built with heaps of stones and beautified with a golden spire unparalleled by any other temple built by the earlier kings was constructed."

Babar"s own voluminous memoirs, "The Baburnama" gives us an insight into the mind and activities of the Moghul / Turkish conqueror. Originally written in Chaghatay (a dialect of Turkish), two English translations of the book are available. The first one was by Annette Beveridge and published between 1912 & 1921. The second and more authoritative version, "The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor" was translated, edited and annotated by Wheeler M. Thacktson and published by the Oxford University Press in 1996. Babur"s stayed in Ayodhya from April to September of 1528.
Baber wrote, "Chanderi had been in the daru"l-harb [Hindu rule] for some years and held by Sanga"s highest-ranking officer Meidini Rao, with four or five thousand infidels, but in 934 [1527-28], through the grace of God, I took it by force within a ghari or two, massacred the infidels, and brought it into the bosom of Islam ..." (p. 331)
"For the sake of Islam I became a wanderer; I battled infidels and Hindus."
"I determined to become a martyr. Thank God I became a holy warrior." (p. 387)
"Hindustan is a place of little charm. ... The one nice aspect of Hindustan is it is a large country with lots of gold and money."

Ram as Historical Person:

Ram was mentioned not only in Valmiki"s Ramayana, but also in Vyas"s Mahabharata at four places -- Ramopakhayan, Aaranyak Parva, Drona Parva and Dashrath Kathanak. In Rig Veda (, there is a mention of Iksvaku, the ancestor of Ram and the founder of Ayodhya. The Atharva Veda mentions Ayodhya as having nine gates. The Atharva Veda (18.3.16) mentions the name of Vishwamitra, Vashista the preceptor of Ram, and Bhardwaj.

According to ancient Indian chronology and Puranic tradition Ram was born in the 24th Treta Yuga (Great Age). Here are the references:

1. Treta yuge chaturvinshe ravane tapseh shakshyat
Ram dashrtathi prapiye sagane shakyamiyeewan (Vayu Puran 70.88)

2. Sandho tu samanupraptre tretayaam dwaparisya cha
Ramo daasrathirbhutva bhavishami jagatpati (Mahabharata 348.19)
3. Chaturvinshe yuge chapi vishwamitra pure sare

Loke ram iti khyate tejsah bhaskaropam (Harivansh 22.104)

4. Chaturvinshe yuge vats tretayaam raghuvanshaje
Ramo naam bhavishyami chaturvhayu sanatane (Bhramand Puran

Dr Satya Pal Singh in his essay (Rediff.com April 14, 2008) has calculated that if Ram indeed lived during the last phase of the 24th Treta Yuga, as mentioned in Valmiki"s Ramayana then he lived 1.8 million years ago. We are presently in the Kalyug of the 28th Chaturyugi and so far, 5,108 years of Kalyug have lapsed. Kalyug has 432,000 years, Dwapar had 864,000 years, Treta had about 1,2 million years and Satyug had 1.7 million years. Thus one unit of four yugas, called Chaturyugi, have 4.3 million years.

The Valmiki Ramayana (Bal Kanda 18.8.9) mentions at the time of Lord Ram"s birth as "the ninth lunar day of the bright fortnight of Chaitra, Punarvasu was in the ascendant and five planets (the Sun, Mars, Saturn, Jupiter and Venus) appeared in the zodiacal signs of Mesa or Aries, Makara or Capricorn, Tula or Libra, Karka or Cancer, and Mina or Pisces respectively. Jupiter in conjunction with the Moon appeared in Karka. From these, it is possible to calculate that Ram was born on January 10, 5114 BC, which means to say 7,122 years ago.

According to astronomy, the position of zodiac constellations repeats itself every 26,000 years. Thus, Ram could have been born in any of the repetitive cycles in planetary positions. The scientific interpretation of the photographs of the remains of Ram Setu taken by NASA"s Gemini-11 spacecraft in 2002 reveals that this ancient bridge linking India to Sri Lanka was about 1.75 million years old. If Ram built this bridge, the constellations would have completed 66 cycles before coming back to its original position.

According to Vedas, the world is 4.32 billion years old, and man arrived on earth approximately two billion years ago. Man was created on earth in the seventh manmantar of Vaivasvat Manu. The sun, planets, stars, earth, sea, vegetation, flora and fauna were created in the earlier six manmantars. Western scholars now agree that the earth is aged between 3.96 and 4.3 billion years. According to Michael Cremo"s books, "Forbidden Archaeology" and "Devolution of Man" man came on earth at least two billion years ago.

The Rama Sethu was man-made:

The Rama Bridge, dated by a NASA digital image, is considered 1.7million years old, which matches the ancient age of human settlement in Sri Lanka. The existence of a man-made bridge and of its floating nature was emphasized by the former director of the Geological Survey of India and a member of the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), S. Badrinarayanan. Badrinarayanan said in Mumbai Mirror (24 April 2007), that the Ram Setu was not a natural formation. "Coral reefs," he said, "are formed only on hard surfaces, but during (our) study we found that the formation at the Bridge is nothing but boulders of coral reefs. When we drilled for investigation, we found that there was loose sand two to three meters below the reefs. Hard rocks were found several meters below the sand."

"Such a natural formation is impossible. Unless somebody has transported them and dumped them there, those reefs could not have come there. Some boulders were so light that they could float on water. Apparently, whoever has done it, has identified light (but strong) boulders to make it easy for transportation. Since they are strong, they can withstand a lot of weight. It should be preserved as a national monument."

"The Geological logging of the boreholes drilled by NIOT in the inter-tidal areas of Ram Sethu reveals very interesting details. In all the boreholes, the top portion is seen to be occupied by recent marine sands. In almost of all the boreholes between 4.5 and 7.5m the borehole intersected hard formations, which have been found to be calcareous sand stones and corals."

"In the case of Ram Sethu area, we observe that the Coral formations hardly occur 1 to 2.5m in length and resting on loose marine sands. Most of these coral rock pieces are seem to be rounded pebbles of corals. These things appear to point these coral rock pieces and pebbles have been transported and placed in these areas".

"Since the calcareous sand stones and Corals are less dense than normal hard rock and quite compact, probably these were used by the ancients to form a connecting link to Sri Lanka, on the higher elevations of the Ram Sethu ridge and this is analogous to modern day causeway".

The possibility of this bridge being a submarine anti-clinal ridge is also ruled out because the bridge area is located in the recent sediments, which are not yet subjected to any folding activity. Hence, this submarine feature, called Rama Bridge, remains to be man-made to connect the two landmasses of Tamil Nadu (India) and Sri Lanka, both being separated by the sea. That is, it would have been developed manually to cross the ocean when the sea level was lower than the present one.


In 638 AD, ancient Persia was occupied by the Arabs and all traces of Zoroastrian religions were erased out. In 664AD, Arabs reached Afghanistan, then a Hindu-Buddhist country and in the same year reached Punjab. Since then, every temple in India were sacked and ruined. Ayodhya controversy could not have taken place if the Muslims acknowledged this historical fact.

In Europe, epics of Homer and The Bible are not considered as myths, but informal history. The ruin of Troy, described by Homer, is already excavated. Israel government made serious efforts to excavate every places mentioned in The Bible to find out its ancient past. In India as well, S.R.Rao, former chief of the Archaeological Survey of India, has discovered the ruins of Dwarka submerged in water off the coast of Gujarat. Japanese ground Radar Company Tojo-Vikas has found out ruins of huge places 30 meter under the ground of Ayodhya. Thus, it is most unscientific to rule out Ramayana, Mahabharata and Purana as just myths, but not informal history of the ancient India.

Dr.Dipak Basu

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